By David J. Eicher
50 maximum Mysteries of the Universe is an astronomy buffs dream booklet! This new collectors version from the editors of Astronomy contains the most recent learn on astronomys largest questions. How outdated is the universe? Are there different planets like Earth? How do great stars explode? discover solutions to those questions, and more!
50 maximum Mysteries of the Universe has the newest medical wisdom in regards to the universes starting and finish. discover why antimatter concerns, what function string thought performs in cosmic constitution, and no matter if parallel universes quite exist. state of the art technology written in easy-to-understand language makes this collectors merchandise a souvenir to percentage with family and friends.
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Extra resources for 50 Greatest Mysteries of the Universe (Astronomy Magazine Collectors Edittion)
Of the epoch described by the standard model. The origin of the time axis is obviously arbitrary, and we could have chosen to set the coordinate t = 0 at any other point in the graph. However, what is not arbitrary is the fact that in the standard model the Universe, at some point of its past evolution, necessarily reaches a singular stage where the temperature and the curvature become infinite. Beyond this point the time coordinate cannot be further extended, since the presence of a singularity makes any physical model meaningless.
From the current epoch where the Universe has a curvature radius of about 1028 cm, or 10 billion light-years (the current value of the Hubble radius), until the beginning of the quantum gravity epoch, when the curvature radius was about 10−33 cm (corresponding to the so-called Planck length LP ). Let us follow, for instance, the scale corresponding to the temperature of the cosmic microwave radiation, and proceed backward in time, starting from its current value of about 10−4 electron-volts. When the temperature is about one hundredth of an electron-volt, we reach the epoch of galaxy formation; as the temperature reaches the value of about one electron-volt, we reach the epoch of matter– radiation equality, corresponding roughly to the phase in which nuclei and electrons tend to combine into atoms.
Cosmic history can then be traced back in terms of three possible evolution parameters: time, temperature, and space-time curvature (or, equivalently, the inverse of the curvature, the Hubble radius c/H ). Obviously, these parameters are not mutually independent: time is proportional to the Hubble radius, while the temperature is inversely proportional to the spatial radius R which, in turn, depends on time. The main stages of the standard cosmological model as a function of the above-mentioned evolution parameters are shown in Fig.