Artemisia annua - Pharmacology and Biotechnology by Elisabeth Hsu (auth.), Tariq Aftab, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, M.

By Elisabeth Hsu (auth.), Tariq Aftab, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, M. Masroor A. Khan, M. Naeem (eds.)

Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone initially extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is an efficient antimalarial agent, quite for multi-drug resistant and cerebral malaria. even if, the focus of artemisinin within the plant is particularly low. as the chemical synthesis of artemisinin is complex and never economically possible in view of the bad yield of the drug, the intact plant is still the single achievable resource of artemisinin construction. hence, it will be important to extend the focus of artemisinin in A. annua to minimize the price of artemisinin dependent antimalarial medicinal drugs. Plant scientists have concentrated their efforts on A. annua for the next artemisinin crop yield. With the current quantity, we're bringing jointly the examine that is being performed in this plant through the global and destiny chances for scientists and researchers who are looking to paintings on it.

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Lu P. O. com T. Aftab et al. 1007/978-3-642-41027-7_4, Ó Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 51 52 P. Weathers et al. artemisinin. , artemisinin, and prevention techniques including insecticide-treated bed nets. The threat of resistance to artemisinin monotherapy, however, is very real (Phyo et al. 2012), and high recrudescence rates associated with a short halflife of the drug (Giao et al. 2001) have brought about the need for costly combination therapies. To prevent and delay emergence of artemisinin drug resistance, the World Health Organization (WHO) now recommends artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for malaria for two reasons: a second antimalarial drug, which has different biochemical modes of attack on parasites, would prove more effective, and the second drug should also kill parasites with developed artemisinin resistance (WHO 2010).

6 million cases and *1,100 deaths in 2009 (Fig. 6). With the start of ‘National Malaria Control Programme’ in India in 1953, the situation drastically improved within five years of implementation that led to change in its objective from ‘Control to Eradication’. This led to the formulation of ‘Modified Plan of Operation’ in 1977, in which strategies differ in different regions according to the most commonly used parameter of annual parasite incidence (API). 5–2 million cases per year. Scenario of malaria changed in 1990s as a result of number of factors that included the emergence of DDT resistance in vectors, emerging vectors with exophilic nature leading to failure of indoor residual spray (IRS) method and above all increasing urbanisation leading to increased migration of populations, thus changing the pattern of disease to a large extent (Fig.

50 % on dry weight basis (Klayman et al. 1984). Artemisinin yields of A. 60 % as reported from China (WHO 2006). 70 % artemisinin of which 40 % could be extracted by simple tea preparation (Karbwang et al. 1994). 2 ha) of land. Since A. annua plants, harvested from various sources, showed no sufficient yields, companies cultivate hybrids with higher artemisinin content (Ferreira et al. 1995). In Vietnam, farmers obtain 20 kg/ha as net yield of Artemisia (Hemskerk et al. 2006). Accompanying biochemical substances of artemisinin are dihydroartemisinin (dihydroqinghaosu), artemisinic acid (a potential precursor of artemisinin) and arteannuin A and B (Allen et al.

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